Applicants must have completed a bachelor's degree or the equivalent before beginning graduate study. Applicants who already hold a Ph.D. degree will not be considered for a second Ph.D. degree. Transcripts from each college or university attended, three letters of recommendation, a CV, and the applicant's statement of purpose are required components of the application and are carefully and equally weighed during the evaluation process. GRE tests (general and advanced subject) are not required and in most options scores will not be considered for admission. Applicants are expected to read, write and speak English and comprehend the spoken language. Although not required for admission, for applicants whose native language is not English or who have not received a degree from a university or college where English is the primary language of instruction, it is important to demonstrate a strong capability in English. This can be done by self-reporting scores from the Educational Testing Service (TOEFL), Pearson Test of English Academic (PTE Academic), the Cambridge Examinations and the International English Language Testing System (IELTS), or other services that provide a certified English-language proficiency examination.